From the last century 50's, in Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi Cultured Pearl and other development, pilot production of artificial Akoya pearl cultivation success, creating a pearl of China's artificial breeding history. Pearl 1964, production from small-scale trials into mass production, the province has established a Higashiyama, O Tau, Huidong, Xuwen, Suixi, Lingshui, Beihai, Fangcheng, 9 East, state-run Akoya pearl market. After several decades of development, Xuwen become an important place of origin. In 1991 the province produced 6,170 kg beads, in which the communist Hoi Chu Xuwen County and 4,477 kg, accounting for 72.56%. I had had a size of 572 pearl farms, the farmer, household 1292, 280 million cultured pearl, there are 23 hatcheries hatchery,Haikang main producing areas for the county and Xuwen County, but are basically concentrated in the quicksand of the harbor. Cultured pearl is mainly Markov pearl shell and white dish (sterile large pearls). Pearl nursery technology and the successful cultivation of a large pearl, cultured pearl industry development in China has created favorable conditions. South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute and the relevant units of co-operation with the pearl farm, shell white butterfly education to carry out pilot production of large pearls, after eight years of research trials, and finally in 1981 the first Chinese to successfully grow a diameter of 19 × 15.5 mm, weighing 6 grams of large pearls. In 1982 they bred in diameter 19 × 16 mm, weight 6.85 grams of the second large pearl stars. 1987 communist large pearl 3000, the largest of a diameter of 25 × 30 mm, weight 15 grams, worth $ 8,700. White butterfly shell pearl cultivation technology of artificial success, won the 1987 National Science and Technology Progress Award.
In the new period of development, Zhanjiang pearl industry also rose to a new level, Zhanjiang pearl old retreat her veil to show the world the beautiful luster. More and more people realize pearls, pearl understanding. Zhanjiang, the local pearl industry is opened up broad prospects for development. Let us work together to explore the history of Zhanjiang pearl culture and current status.
From the Song Dynasty Zhaoqing, "Duan", the three Ray "Pearl" (c mine is mine the ancient name state capital, especially the three counties in the state capital Lei Lei Suixi the North, in Leihai Kang and Nanlei Xuwen) and Taishan "Jade "on a regular basis to be called as a special tribute the three specialties of local court in Guangdong
First, Zhanjiang pearl's history and culture
(A) long history of Zhanjiang pearl
China is the world's first cultured pearl in the country. 4,000 years ago, "Sea History • Postscript", the Emperor Yu have given on the records of pearls as a tribute: "East China Sea fish be fish heads, fish leather chi Jane South China Sea Great Bay." We reviewed the literature of other ancient books such as "The Book of Songs," "Mountains and Seas," "Ya," "Book" and have a record of sea pearls.
The first is Zhanjiang pearl of the property, according to "Historical Records • Merchant Biography" records, as early as the Han Dynasty in 111 BC, from Hepu to Hepu Xuwen County North Bay County on the verge of rich pearls. At that time Xuwen County (jurisdiction throughout the entire Leizhou Peninsula) and are Hepu Hepu County, so the production of pearls counties referred to as "Hepu pearls." Qu Qing Dynasty were written in the mid-Qing Emperor Kangxi "Guangdong new language," a book written: "The name on Hepu pearl beads," "pearl from the mine, inexpensive to Cochin, Trinidad six-pool" (which means pearl origin in Xuwen, Leizhou to Lianzhou Hepu County waters in the Tonkin Gulf area, where there are six natural products Zhuchi). The legacy of ancient Hepu County, according to the "Qing Yi Tong Zhi", "Han Xuwen County home for Hepu Gunji", and the Qing dynasty, the "clean state capital records," "the Han Hepu Hepu County, County, Gunji Xuwen, after the Han To Hepu Gunji. " Most research in this area based on historical experts "Qing Yi Tong Zhi" the historical argument, "the Western Han Dynasty in Xuwen Hepu Gunji," and the "Han gun records," the style, the inference "Han" Since the Xuwen as Hepu County, the county first, Xuwen is the Gunji. Another access to the "Old Tang Book • Geography" in the record: "the first year of Yuan Feng Han, emissary from Xuwen Nanru Hai, was continent, south and north of a thousand things, a little thought Zhuya, Dan ear Erjun." To that Gunji Hepu County home when the Western Han Dynasty, Gunji in Xuwen County, the Eastern Han Dynasty when the shift Governing Hepu County. Followed by the subsequent establishment and named Zhu Ya-gun, press the "Han" should Shao Note: "Erjun in the ocean, Yaan the edge. A pearl, Gu Yue Zhu Ya." This point of view, " Zhu Ya "from" the edge of the county in the sea Yaan, a pearl ", named" Zhu Ya ", named after the rare property Zhuya pearls at a time when Zhuya County Gunji is located in Xuwen County, this remote Link Hainan. Learned from the last, at least 2,000 years ago the local Leizhou been known for its rich sea water pearls, and pearls, and local Leizhou Peninsula as early as the time of the ancient Marine Silk Road is an important trade product.
Leizhou Peninsula as a sword to separate the vast South China Sea, where the unique climate and ocean conditions. Therefore, in this land of Zhanjiang pearl producing both its round, shiny, bright and clear, and Ling, elegant ball, bright color, luster and magnificent and famous.
Since the Ming Dynasty Hongwu Kaiyuan (1368), Leizhou way to mine the capital and Hepu County, the peninsula has been eliminated. Leizhou Peninsula before fame, and is today the northern Gulf Hepu the only place to keep name. Imperial County after the world through beads were Hepu world crown will be referred to as Hepu pearl beads, pearl origin will therefore simply say Hepu County. In fact, rich in ancient and modern tribute to the origin of Royal beads in ancient Hepu County Leizhou Peninsula, including Guangxi Autonomous County is one of Hepu County produced a small bead. In fact, after the Ming Dynasty had a lot of historical documents in a number of pearls produced Leizhou reads: If, according to (Ming) Zhang Han: "Song window dream language" (bound volume) Volume 4 "merchants discipline" on page 81 mind, "the Ming Dynasty to produce a small pearl Leiqiong known for, the quality is very high, then the capital had" sufficient buildings and curios surplus equipment box "scenes, and" most of the party of your jade beads Leiqiong, Yunnan Gold, the more Green. " sixteenth century, Portuguese colonists Tome Pires also spoke Leiqiong • "There are a lot of small pearls." Ming Dynasty "Qiongzhou records," Volume 8 "Hai Yi" in the mind: the pearl has become Leiqiong region Southeast Asian market in the best-selling items, so much favored by pirates. According to (Ming) Hu Guang waiting for: "Ming Kenso Record" Volume 92 "fully integrated E June Wang G," noted article: Other pirates often swept Kou Lei, Joan Zhuchi, such as fully integrated seven years (1471) two-masted ship to pay to drive to the mine, the government stole two fishing Zhuchi Joan.
As for the pearl farming methods, was also published in 1167 written by Song Pang Yuanying "Wenchang Miscellany," recorded in the first cultured pearls law: "There is a raised bead method with this pearl of the fraud, those who choose light Ying rounded, take larger mussels, clams, in order to clear flooding, servers, its opening, anxious to throw beads. frequency change of water, nights in mid-set, clams, mussels play Yuet Wah, Chu Serve this fall by two carry on. " The breeding method and modern pearl technology is very similar. Artificial breeding of pearls of ancient technology, the 18th century and 19th century Europe before being transmission.
(B) the unique culture of Akoya Pearl in Zhanjiang
Mother of pearl have a suitable living environment for its ecological habits, or will be made to the death. To Markov pearl is grown mainly in tropical and subtropical waters. The sea here, in addition to Leizhou climate, soil, water, and so the natural conditions for the growth of mother of pearl, there is a unique geographical environment, that is, as a sword to Leizhou the vast South China Sea separates, where climate and ocean exceptional conditions. Therefore, in this land of Zhanjiang pearl producing both its round, shiny, bright and clear, and Ling, elegant ball, bright color, luster and magnificent and famous.
And unique natural environmental conditions, the course of time is the essence of the formation of the Zhanjiang pearl, the pearl culture quite thick deposits. Zhanjiang City is located in this example, Suixi County, northwest coast, history, fans have been in this setting SHAXIAN (see "Suixi County • fan Shaxian home"). However, this title is now only visible in the history of literature can also obscure the scope of its administrative regions, with the exception of the Eastern Han Dynasty Hepu Prefecture is Mon Sheong called "sea out of jewelry" in the dark, and the local people The pearl oyster is still called the sea, and to witness a period of nearly seven thousand years of history. According to "Guangdong new language," says: "The of the orchestra pit Leizhou, Gaozhou fortress (now Lianjiang County) Ma pools, old prolific Pearl," said the pearl beads produced, round Baiguang Ying, small size, known as " West than the East Pearl beads, pearl East beads as "reputation. Production, but diving catch, the World that the "Pearl Fishers." Since the Han Dynasty, the pearl without a break in the historical records in local records.
(To be continued )